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2015年7月11日托福考试阅读解析

2015-07-14 11:12:00 | 编辑: 无 | 有585人参与 | 来自: 匿名

2015年7月11日托福考试已经结束,环球北美老师为大家带来史上最全面的托福考试回忆。


托福阅读考试解析


apparently =  seemingly

adv. 貌似地

astonishment =  surprise

n. 惊人的

enhance =  improve

v. 提高、改善

eventually = in  the end

adv. 最后

exert

v. 施加(压力)、耗费(精力)

particular =  specific

adj. 特定的

peculiar to =  unique

adj. 特有的、独特的

prompt =  stimulate

v. 促使

put forth

提出、建议

recall =  remember

v. 记起

strengthen

v. 强化

in retrospect =  look back

v. 回想

virtually =  nearly

adj. 几乎

考试日期:2015711

Reading Passage  1

Title

心理学

文章内容回顾:

人们做事的时候有人在旁边和没有人的效果是不一样的,有时候,有人在能让事情做的更好,而有时候则相反。以下是探究:

1.      当人们一起完成任务的时候,当只有总体结果被评价,个人会付出更少的努力,而独立的时候就会做得好;或者团体有着利益时也会做得好。当一个小组人越少,或者别人懒,能力不够时个人越有可能付出更多的努力;

2.      人们在完成擅长的事情,有人在效果好;完成不擅长的事情,效果糟糕。

最后说明了一些避免方法,个人在团体中懒散的情况普遍存在,但也有差异。

难度分析:

本文属于心理学文章,关注人类行为。在托福阅读部分,心理学文章考的频率不太高,但从机经来看,本文难度不大,结构清晰,分别覆盖了促进、抑制和团队效应,而且均有实例支撑。在阅读时需要重点关注作者的观点,以及例子与观点的对应。

相关背景知识:

Different Types of Competition

When people  think of competition, they typically think of negative competition, which  leads to hostility, negative attitudes, and a “winner-takes-all” mentality.  However, contrary to popular belief, there are two types of competition:  positive and negative. Therefore, it is critical for businesses and project  managers to recognize the differences between the two types of competition  and learn how to foster positive competition while reducing or eliminating  negative competition.

Before  explaining the differences between positive and negative competition, it is  important to understand what competition is. According to the Merriam-Webster  dictionary, competition is the act of competing or an effort of two or more  independent parties to achieve a desired result. In a project team situation,  internal competition can take one of three forms:

An individual  team member competing against another individual team member,

An individual  team member competing against the entire team, or

An entire team  competing against another project team within the same organization.

The desirable  form of competition is often referred to as positive, healthy, or cooperative  competition. As the name suggests, positive competition promotes an “everyone  wins” attitude where team members work collectively toward a common goal and  the reward is communal. In positive competition, individual team members can  also compete to improve their own placement within the team, but in a  cooperative manner in which there is mutual respect and pleasant interactions  that do not jeopardize other team members.

Reading Passage  2

Title

基因物质的发现

文章内容回顾:

原来人们一直不知道遗传物质是什么,格里菲斯有一天做疫苗,培养了S菌和R菌,S有毒,R没毒,但在杀死的S和来一起培养的时候,混合物依然有毒性。

  下文中的探究:

  艾弗里把其他物质去除后发现了遗传物质,但是人们以为遗传物质仍然是蛋白质,因为人们觉得核酸太小,不足以携带足够遗传信息

难度分析:

本文属于生物类文章,关注基因物质发现的过程。从机经来看,属于实验研究型文章,而且学科词汇偏多。如果还没有学过基因相关生物课内容的同学,需要克服生词带来的干扰,重点关注实验研究的结论;而对于学过相关生物课的同学也不能掉以轻心,因为还需要注意不能使课堂上学习的背景知识凌驾于文章内容之上,必须要做到忠实原文。

相关背景知识:

Although genes  were known to exist on chromosomes, chromosomes are composed of both protein  and DNA, and scientists did not know which of these is responsible for  inheritance. In 1928, Frederick Griffith discovered the phenomenon of  transformation (see Griffith's experiment): dead bacteria could transfer  genetic material to "transform" other still-living bacteria.  Sixteen years later, in 1944, the Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment identified  DNA as the molecule responsible for transformation. The role of the nucleus  as the repository of genetic information in eukaryotes had been established  by Hämmerling in 1943 in his work on the single celled alga Acetabularia. The  Hershey–Chase experiment in 1952 confirmed that DNA (rather than protein) is  the genetic material of the viruses that infect bacteria, providing further  evidence that DNA is the molecule responsible for inheritance.

Discrete  inheritance and Mendel's laws

At its most fundamental level,  inheritance in organisms occurs by passing discrete heritable units,  called genes,  from parents to progeny.  This property was first observed by Gregor  Mendel, who studied the segregation of heritable traits in pea plants. In  his experiments studying the trait for flower color, Mendel observed that the  flowers of each pea plant were either purple or white—but never an  intermediate between the two colors. These different, discrete versions of  the same gene are called alleles.

In the case of pea, which is  a diploid species,  each individual plant has two copies of each gene, one copy inherited from  each parent. Many species, including humans, have this pattern of  inheritance. Diploid organisms with two copies of the same allele of a given  gene are called homozygous at that gene locus,  while organisms with two different alleles of a given gene are called heterozygous.

The set of alleles for a given  organism is called its genotype, while the observable traits of the organism are  called its phenotype. When organisms are heterozygous at  a gene, often one allele is called dominant as  its qualities dominate the phenotype of the organism, while the other allele  is called recessive as its qualities recede and  are not observed. Some alleles do not have complete dominance and instead  have incomplete dominance by expressing  an intermediate phenotype, or codominance by expressing both  alleles at once.

When a pair of organisms reproduce sexually, their offspring  randomly inherit one of the two alleles from each parent. These observations  of discrete inheritance and the segregation of alleles are collectively known  as Mendel's first law or the Law of  Segregation.

Reading Passage  3

Title

鸟类唱歌

文章内容回顾:

大部分鸟比较晚,有一些很早就开始唱歌。例子是某种white鸟,对比自然情况下和实验室里面这种鸟唱歌的早晚和方言(dialect),并且这种鸟在自然中唱歌是因为他们在aututum就有自己的领地了,最后讲的是放磁带别的鸟的叫声,他们会自己识别出来同种鸟类的声音(PS这篇文章我们在听力练习里面做过,只不过这次阅读补充详细了一些)

难度分析:

本文属于生物类文章,关注的是鸟类的叫声。生物类学科是托福阅读里频率较高的学科,而且本文关注的鸟类叫声也是最早的经典加试就有类似的文章,而且本文从机经结构判断,跟经典加试主要讲解内容整体一致,都是通过实验研究得出结论。同第二篇,实验类文章需要重点关注实验结论。

相关背景知识:

Song sparrow

The sparrow  species derives its name from its colorful repertoire of songs. Enthusiasts  report that one of the songs heard often in suburban locations closely  resembles the opening four notes of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5.  The male uses a fairly complex song to declare ownership of its territory and  attract females.

Singing itself  consists of a combination of repeated notes, quickly passing isolated notes,  and trills. The songs are very crisp, clear, and precise, making them easily  distinguishable by human ears. A particular song is determined not only by  pitch and rhythm but also by the timbre of the trills. Although one bird will  know many songs—as many as 20 different tunes with as many as 1000 improvised  variations on the basic theme,[citation needed]—unlike thrushes, the song  sparrow usually repeats the same song many times before switching to a  different song.

Song sparrows  typically learn their songs from a handful of other birds that have  neighboring territories. They are most likely to learn songs that are shared  in common between these neighbors. Ultimately, they will choose a territory  close to or replacing the birds that they have learned from. This allows the  song sparrows to address their neighbors with songs shared in common with  those neighbors. It has been demonstrated that song sparrows are able to  distinguish neighbors from strangers on the basis of song, and also that  females are able to distinguish (and prefer) their mate's songs from those of  other neighboring birds, and they prefer songs of neighboring birds to those  of strangers.

Reading Passage  4

Title

(局部加试)

文章内容回顾:

large animals like ZK会有一个long horn,它会用horn来攻击,以求偶和保护领地。但这会受到它的predators的影响。如果predators多,它的horn会变小,甚至变成食草动物。而且一般情况下,它live alone or in small groups,但是这容易被predators攻击,于是渐渐地,它们变成群居动物。

难度分析:

本文属于生物类文章,关注动物的角在生活习性中的作用和体现。此次托福考试生物类文章偏多,而且这是第二篇关注动物具体特征或行为的文章。从普遍回忆来看,这篇可能是局部的阅读加试,不是每个考生都遇到了。从机经来看,结构偏向因果类文章,分别从horn本身作用,有捕食者情况和无捕食者情况来讨论,考生在阅读时需要分清不同情况下的体现。

相关背景知识:

Antlers’ function & their roles in sexual  selection

Antlers are  unique to cervids and found mostly on males: only reindeer have antlers on  the females, and these are normally smaller than those of the males.  Nevertheless, fertile does from other species of deer have the capacity to  produce antlers on occasion, usually due to increased testosterone levels.  The "horns" of a pronghorn (which is not a cervid but a giraffoid)  meet some of the criteria of antlers, but are not considered true antlers  because they contain keratin.

Each antler  grows from an attachment point on the skull called a pedicle. While an antler  is growing, it is covered with highly vascular skin called velvet, which  supplies oxygen and nutrients to the growing bone. Antlers are considered one  of the most exaggerated cases of male secondary sexual traits in the animal  kingdom, and grow faster than any other mammal bone. Growth occurs at the  tip, and is initially cartilage, which is later replaced by bone tissue. Once  the antler has achieved its full size, the velvet is lost and the antler's  bone dies. This dead bone structure is the mature antler. In most cases, the  bone at the base is destroyed by osteoclasts and the antlers fall off at some  point. As a result of their fast growth rate, antlers are considered a  handicap since there is an immense nutritional demand on deer to re-grow  antlers annually, and thus can be honest signals of metabolic efficiency and  food gathering capability.

In most arctic  and temperate-zone species, antler growth and shedding is annual, and is  controlled by the length of daylight. Although the antlers are regrown each  year, their size varies with the age of the animal in many species,  increasing annually over several years before reaching maximum size. In  tropical species, antlers may be shed at any time of year, and in some  species such as the sambar, antlers last several years. Some equatorial deer  never shed their antlers. Antlers function as weapons in combats between  males, which sometimes cause serious wounds, and as dominance and sexual  displays.

The principal  means of evolution of antlers is sexual selection, which operates via two  mechanisms: Male-male competition (behaviorally, physiologically) and female  mate choice. Male-male competition can take place in two forms. First, they  can compete behaviorally where males use their antlers as weapons to compete  for access to mates; second, they can compete physiologically where males  present their antlers to display their strength and fertility competitiveness  to compete for access to mates. Males with the largest antlers are more  likely to obtain mates and achieve the highest fertilization success due to  their competitiveness, dominance and high phenotypic quality. Whether this is  a result of male-male fighting or display, or of female choosiness differs  depending on the species as the shape, size, and function of antlers vary  between species.




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