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托福阅读中文章结构解析妙答

2015-11-24 11:27:51 | 编辑: Sophie | 有817人参与 | 来自: 环球教育整理

   做托福阅读题其实就是一个解码再组码的过程,一般来说,解码过程比较容易,大家需要做的就是仔细阅读然后分清文章脉络就好。但即使简单,环球教育(原环球雅思)小编也要提醒各位重庆托福的考生千万不能掉以轻心!

  ETS(托福考试出题机构)在官方指南中明确指出要具有略读文章与了解文章结构的能力。而在实际教学过程中我发现文章结构是同学们做托福阅读时经常忽视的一个问题,学生往往只注重对细节的分析理解而忽略了对整篇文章的概括性把控。其实了解文章结构对于做某些段落题和小结题是有帮助的,所以今天就跟大家分享有关托福阅读文章结构的相关内容。

  托福阅读文章的结构就是指文章的大体行文脉络,反应了作者是如何构思本篇文章的。在托福阅读中,文章的结构分为三种,分别是说明介绍型、现象解释型、驳论型。判断一篇文章的结构属于哪种类型,关键在每段的主旨和段落间的关系。如果文章涉及的几个主要内容比较松散没有紧密的关联就属于说明介绍型,这种类型的文章段落之间往往存在并列的关系;如果是先提出一个现象再对这个现象做具体的解释,所展开的段落都是围绕着这个现象的就是现象解释型。如果是驳论型通常会在文中提到一个理论,然后会对这个理论提出质疑,之后往往还会提出其他的相关理论。下面举一个说明介绍型结构的具体例子。

  例:TPO7—3 : Agriculture, Iron, and the Bantu Peoples

  There is evidence of agriculture in Africa prior to 3000 B.C. It may have developed independently, but many scholars believe that the spread of agriculture and iron throughout Africa linked it to the major centers of the Near East and Mediterranean world. The drying up of what is now the Sahara desert had pushed many peoples to the south into sub-Sahara Africa. These peoples settled at first in scattered hunting-and-gathering bands, although in some places near lakes and rivers, people who fished, with a more secure food supply, lived in larger population concentrations. Agriculture seems to have reached these people from the Near East, since the first domesticated crops were millets and sorghums whose origins are not African but west Asian. Once the idea of planting diffused, Africans began to develop their own crops, such as certain varieties of rice, and they demonstrated a continued receptiveness to new imports. The proposed areas of the domestication of African crops lie in a band that extends from Ethiopia across southern Sudan to West Africa. Subsequently, other crops, such as bananas, were introduced from Southeast Asia.

  本段主旨:非洲农业的起源和农作物的引进。

  Livestock also came from outside Africa. Cattle were introduced from Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt (1780-1560 B.C.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa. Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300-200 B.C., there were trade routes across the Sahara. Horses were adopted by peoples of the West African savannah, and later their powerful cavalry forces allowed them to carve out large empires. Finally, the camel was introduced around the first century A.D. This was an important innovation, because the camel’s abilities to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into a still difficult, but more accessible, route of trade and communication.

  本段主旨:非洲牲畜的引进和用途。

  Iron came from West Asia, although its routes of diffusion were somewhat different than those of agriculture. Most of Africa presents a curious case in which societies moved directly from a technology of stone to iron without passing through the intermediate stage of copper or bronze metallurgy, although some early copper-working sites have been found in West Africa. Knowledge of iron making penetrated into the forest and savannahs of West Africa at roughly the same time that iron making was reaching Europe. Evidence of iron making has been found in Nigeria, Ghana, and Mali.

  本段主旨:铁和制铁术传入非洲。

  This technological shift cause profound changes in the complexity of African societies. Iron represented power. In West Africa the blacksmith who made tools and weapons had an important place in society, often with special religious powers and functions. Iron hoes, which made the land more productive, and iron weapons, which made the warrior more powerful, had symbolic meaning in a number of West Africa societies. Those who knew the secrets of making iron gained ritual and sometimes political power.

  本段主旨:制铁术对非洲的几个深刻社会影响。

  Unlike in the Americas, where metallurgy was a very late and limited development, Africans had iron from a relatively early date, developing ingenious furnaces to produce the high heat needed for production and to control the amount of air that reached the carbon and iron ore necessary for making iron. Much of Africa moved right into the Iron Age, taking the basic technology and adapting it to local conditions and resources.

  本段主旨:非洲人对制铁术的发展。

  The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria. Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. They spoke a language, proto-Bantu (“Bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent tongue of a language of a large number of Bantu languages still spoken throughout sub-Sahara Africa. Why and how these people spread out into central and southern Africa remains a mystery, but archaeologists believe that their iron weapons allowed them to conquer their hunting-gathering opponents, who still used stone implements. Still, the process is uncertain, and peaceful migration—or simply rapid demographic growth—may have also caused the Bantu explosion.

  本段主旨:班图人的迁徙和扩张。

  通过对每段主旨的总结分析可以看出第1、2段说的是与农业相关的内容,分别从农业中农作物的引进和牲畜的引进这两方面来论述。第3、4、5段说的是与铁相关的内容,这三段联系比较紧密,讲了关于铁在非洲的引进、影响和发展。第6段主要说和班图人有关的内容。整体来看本文没有围绕一个现象或理论展开,而是并列地介绍了非洲的农业、铁、班图人,因此是介绍说明型的托福阅读篇章结构。


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