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雅思议论文例证使用方法及其有效性

2015-09-14 18:16:15 | 编辑: 环球教育 | 有438人参与 | 来自: 环球教育

       

       论证通常被视作议论文写作最重要的环节。论证既体现了作者的逻辑思维,也支撑了论点甚至整篇文章。雅思议论文主体段落常用的论证方式有:递进论证、举例论证、因果论证、对比对照论证、引用论证、解释说明论证、假设论证。受题目要求(Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience.的限制,考生想在大作文上拿到6分及以上必须在文中使用举例论证,还要确保使用的准确性。本篇论文宁波环球雅思学校的亓尧老师将重点讲解雅思议论文中的例证使用方法及其有效性。

举例论证应适用于分论点与分论据之间,而非分论点与分论点之间。使用举例论证的两个条件:1、读者可能对分论点中某个名词存在疑惑,名词列举可以为读者解惑。2、读者可能对整个分论点存在疑惑,事件列举可以为读者解惑。

1Some animals,like monkeys,bear close resemblance to mankind in organs and cells. It is much crueler to do research on men than on animals. That is the reason why scientists choose to test on animals instead of men.

2There are certain special occupations where people must wear uniforms.For example, the police are always required to dress themselves in uniforms as a form of identity and authority.

3The first reason is rooted in the fact that academic subjects broaden juveniles’ horizons.For instance, Chinese and English develop the ability of expression, improving communication efficiency. Math and Science are beneficial for motivating creativities and exploring learners’ intelligence.

考官查看学生有没有使用论证方式,主要查看学生有无使用举例连接词。按照上述的举例条件,我们可以将举例连词进行如下分类:

名词举例:for example, …; for instance, …; Take ... for example. …; like…, such as…; …, including…; …, which may include…; A typical/perfect example can be found in…; …is a case in point; …serve as a typical example;…can be taken as an example; …is regarded as a proof; …is considered as an illustration等。

事件(句子)举例:for example, …; for instance, …; A good/clear case in point is that…; …is a case in point; …serve as a typical example;…can be taken as an example; …is regarded as a proof; …is considered as an illustration等。

好例子使得论点更有说服力。然而,在实际作文中,考生写出的例子却常常让考官啼笑皆非。如全真考题It is generally believed that some people are born with certain talents, for instance for sport or music and others are not. However, it is sometimes claimed that any child can be taught to become a good sports person or musician. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. 考生作文中的例子:My father was born in a poor family, His family had no money and he had no gift. However, he worked very hard. He started his business from 19 years old. In his 26, he had owned his first factory. Therefore, working hard is more important than talents.

首先,这个例子本身已偏题。题目要求论证的是“通过教育”获得成功,而不是“通过努力”获得成功。而且题目说的是一个小范围的才能“certain talents for instance for sport or music” “become a good sports person or musician”。因此论证应与体育和音乐有关,避免离题。其次,雅思议论文不允许记叙成分的存在。举例子绝不能像讲故事一样,洋洋洒洒写百来字。应把握重点,最好在一句话(不超过两句话)内讲清楚例子。再次,雅思大作文虽然要求例子来自你的生活经历或知识,但这并不代表你要举出你身边七大姑八大姨真人真事作为例子,而且一个人的事迹不具备代表性。所以举例的时候最好列出一个具体而又有普遍性的人或事。

针对这篇全真考题若我们如下写就非常符合雅思考官的品味:Obviously, education systems are based on the belief that all can effectively be taught to acquire different skills, including those associated with sport, art or music. A great number of sportsmen, musicians and artists have received training before they become celebrities. A typical example can be found in the Acting Department of the Central Academy of Drama which has taught students to become high-quality professional actors and actresses who have a knowledge of theory, a good command of acting techniques and fine artistic sensibilities.

综上所述,好例子,必须要紧扣题目、简明扼要、有代表性,这样才能有效证明论点,使考官得以认同。

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