重庆环球教育电话
您的位置: 首页 > 托福/雅思真题下载_雅思/托福机经网 > 新托福独立写作机经_托福口语机经汇总_托福听力真题mp3_托福阅读机经下载 >

2014年12月6日托福阅读机经

2015-04-02 10:39:22 | 编辑: 无 | 有883人参与 | 来自: 匿名

以下是环球托福小编为你整理的2014年12月6日托福阅读机经,希望对各位考生有所帮助。

2014年12月6日托福阅读回忆(第一套)

考试日期:2014年12月6日
Reading Passage 1
Title:Bioluminescence of some marine creature
Question types:
文章内容回顾:本 文讲了海里某些生物的发光现象。说这种生物有一种choro什么的,然后化学反应是因为chro+oxygen+enzyme called cilfine之类的东西。然后特别说了squid它还有一种特别的叫做pho的什么器官,它的这个发光有两个看似controdictory的功能可以 吸引生物作为食物还可以hide from prey。然后他的胃是红色和黑色的因为他吃的也是bioluminescence的small creature为了避免被prey看见。
难度分析:海洋生物学话题,讲了一类特殊类型的会发光发亮的生物,其中涉及到一些化学方面的信息,虽然不要求考生掌握相关知识,但一定量的专业词汇还是必不可少的。
相关背景内容:Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. It is a form of chemiluminescence. Bioluminescence occurs widely in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, as well as in some fungi, microorganisms including some bioluminescent bacteria and terrestrial invertebrates such as fireflies. In some animals, the light is produced by symbiotic organisms such as Vibrio bacteria.
The chemical reaction in bioluminescence involves the light-emitting pigment luciferin and the enzyme luciferase. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin. In some species, the type of luciferin requires cofactors such as calcium or magnesium ions, and sometimes also the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In evolution, luciferins vary little: one in particular, coelenterazine, is found in nine different groups of animals (phyla), though some of these obtain it through their diet. Conversely, luciferases vary widely in different species. Bioluminescence has arisen over forty times in evolutionary history.
The uses of bioluminescence include counter-illumination camouflage, mimicry of other animals whether for offensive or defensive purposes, and signalling to other individuals of the same species, such as to attract mates.
Carbon dioxide (C02), adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and phosphate groups (PP) are released as waste products. Luciferase catalyzes the reaction, which may be mediated by cofactors such as calcium or magnesium ions, and for some types of luciferin also the energy-carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The reaction can occur either inside or outside the cell. In bacteria such as Vibrio, the expression of genes related to bioluminescence is controlled by an operon called the Lux operon.
Protein folding structure of the luciferase of the firefly Photinus pyralis. The enzyme is a much larger molecule than luciferin.
In evolution, luciferins generally vary little: one in particular, coelenterazine, is the light emitting pigment for nine phyla (ancient groups of very different organisms), including polycystine radiolaria, Cercozoa (Phaeodaria), protozoa, comb jellies, cnidaria including jellyfish and corals, crustaceans, molluscs, arrow worms and vertebrates (ray-finned fish). Not all these organisms synthesize coelenterazine: some of them obtain it through their diet. Conversely, luciferase enzymes vary widely and tend to be different in each species. Overall, bioluminescence has arisen over forty times in evolutionary history.
Luciferin-luciferase reactions are not the only way that organisms produce light. The parchment worm Chaetopterus (a marine Polychaete) makes use of the photoprotein aequorin instead of luciferase. When calcium ions (Ca2+) are added, the aequorin's rapid catalysis creates a brief flash quite unlike the prolonged glow produced by luciferase. In a second, much slower, step luciferin is regenerated from the oxidised (oxyluciferin) form, allowing it to recombine with aequorin, in readiness for a subsequent flash. Photoproteins are thus enzymes, but with unusual reaction kinetics.
Reading Passage 2
Title:大陆漂移学说
Question types:
文章内容回顾:文 章分别说了4个不同的scientists在这方面做的学术。1)一个叫Ed什么的通过fossile在不同的大陆板块竟然十分相似,所以促使他研究这个 领域。2)忘了名字,他写了一本十分monumental的著作里说板块运动是和earth’s rotation有关,他的观点后面证明是错误的,但是有一个重要的发现就是关于水下mountain bridge的。3)讲了一个叫什么weger的人。4)是他的支持者,在他的基础上还增加了关于plant,animal和fossile的研究。特别 提到了一种生活在freshwater里的生物,这种生物在不同的洲都有发现。由此证明以前就是single continent。因为不可能是游过去的,因为海洋和淡水的生活环境不同。
难度分析:地质学话题。地质学中的板块漂移学说相信大家已经非常熟悉了,也具备一些相应的背景知识。相对于地理知识本身,托福考试更倾向于考察不同科学家和研究者对于此现象的不同理论分析,以及理论背后的依据。
相关背景内容:Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to drift across the ocean bed. The speculation that continents might have 'drifted' was first put forward by Abraham Ortelius in 1596. The concept was independently and more fully developed by Alfred Wegener in 1912, but his theory was rejected by some for lack of a mechanism (though this was supplied later by Holmes) and others because of prior theoretical commitments. The idea of continental drift has been subsumed by the theory of plate tectonics, which explains how the continents move.
Evidence for the movement of continents on tectonic plates is now extensive. Similar plant and animal fossils are found around the shores of different continents, suggesting that they were once joined. The fossils of Mesosaurus, a freshwater reptile rather like a small crocodile, found both in Brazil and South Africa, are one example; another is the discovery of fossils of the land reptile Lystrosaurus in rocks of the same age at locations in Africa, India, and Antarctica. There is also living evidence—the same animals being found on two continents. Some earthworm families (e.g. Ocnerodrilidae, Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae) are found in South America and Africa, for instance.
The complementary arrangement of the facing sides of South America and Africa is obvious, but is a temporary coincidence. In millions of years, slab pull and ridge-push, and other forces of tectonophysics, will further separate and rotate those two continents. It was this temporary feature which inspired Wegener to study what he defined as continental drift, although he did not live to see his hypothesis generally accepted.
Widespread distribution of Permo-Carboniferous glacial sediments in South America, Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, India, Antarctica and Australia was one of the major pieces of evidence for the theory of continental drift. The continuity of glaciers, inferred from oriented glacial striations and deposits called tillites, suggested the existence of the supercontinent of Gondwana, which became a central element of the concept of continental drift. Striations indicated glacial flow away from the equator and toward the poles, based on continents' current positions and orientations, and supported the idea that the southern continents had previously been in dramatically different locations, as well as being contiguous with each other.
Reading Passage 3
Title:Gregarious birds
Question types:
文章内容回顾:讲 了鸟类的群居现象。先是某种鸟爱筑巢在一起,优点有三:1,住在一起面对入侵者他们可以一起击退。2,他们把新巢和旧巢放在一起,迷惑捕食者。3,住在黄 蜂巢旁边,入侵者就不敢来,然后群居也有利于提高存活率。两个例子:1.某种鸟的种群会在同一时间生蛋孵化幼鸟,这样捕食者吃不完所有的幼鸟。2.一种燕 子会给分享食物,没有有鸟的燕子会抓很多食物,这样育雏的燕子也有得吃,整体的生育率就提高了。
难度分析:鸟类学文章,讲的是动物行为学。给出了群居行为的三个好处,再配上具体的例子,结构应该是比较清晰。
相关背景内容:Social animals are those animals which interact highly with other animals, usually of their own species (conspecifics), to the point of having a recognizable and distinct society. Many animals are social to the extent that mothers and offspring bond, and males and females interact to mate, but the term "social animal" is usually only applied when there is a level of social organization that goes beyond this, with permanent groups of adults living together, and relationships between individuals that endure from one encounter to another. The most commonly known example of a social animal is a domestic dog. In the case of social animals, not having those social interactions can be detrimental to the animal's development; they are crucial. These interactions and socializing help to develop emotional stability and flexibility for the span of the animal's life.
While some birds are essentially territorial or live in small family groups, other birds may form large flocks. The principal benefits of flocking are safety in numbers and increased foraging efficiency. Defence against predators is particularly important in closed habitats like forests, where ambush predation is common and multiple eyes can provide a valuable early warning system. This has led to the development of many mixed-species feeding flocks, which are usually composed of small numbers of many species; these flocks provide safety in numbers but increase potential competition for resources. Costs of flocking include bullying of socially subordinate birds by more dominant birds and the reduction of feeding efficiency in certain cases.
Birds sometimes also form associations with non-avian species. Plunge-diving seabirds associate with dolphins and tuna, which push shoaling fish towards the surface. Hornbills have a mutualistic relationship with dwarf mongooses, in which they forage together and warn each other of nearby birds of prey and other predators.
 

2014年12月6日托福阅读回忆(第二套)

考试日期:2014年12月6日(第二套)
Reading Passage 1
Title:移动中的能量消耗
Question types:
文章内容回顾:人走路和空中飞行的动物以及水里游的动物,能量耗用由大到小依次为:地上走,空中飞和水里游。其中人走路是飞行动物的2-3倍,是水里游的20倍。首先空中飞:动物要克服两个主要力量,第一个是drag,第二个是lift production,其中一个是阻力,一个是挥动翅膀需要的力量。然后是水里游,水里游主要是因为它的形状是流线型,还有就是水里游的密度几乎等同于水,几乎不要support weight;另一种aquatic animals such as ducks在surface游得能量耗用大于submerged在水中的耗用;还有就是跟bowl rate有关,水波越大力越大。第三个是人的costs of energy。主要有三个:muscular activities;joint?;acceleration和deceleration。
难度分析:生物类话题,永远高频主题之一。本篇稍稍结合了一点物理学知识,但不影响对整片文章内容结构的把握。全篇主体结构是总分,谈到了三种消耗能量的方式,考生要区别每种能量耗费产生的具体原因。
相关背景内容:The energetics of locomotion involves the energy expenditure by animals in moving. Energy consumed in locomotion is not available for other efforts, so animals typically have evolved to use the minimum energy possible during movement. However, in the case of certain behaviors, such as locomotion to escape a predator, performance (such as speed or maneuverability) is more crucial, and such movements may be energetically expensive. Furthermore, animals may use energetically expensive methods of locomotion when environmental conditions (such as being within a tunnel) preclude other modes.

The most common metric of energy use during locomotion is net cost of transport, defined as the calories needed above baseline metabolism to move a given distance, per unit body mass. For aerobic locomotion, most animals have a nearly constant cost of transport - moving a given distance requires the same caloric expenditure, regardless of speed. This constancy is usually accomplished by changes in gait. The net cost of transport of swimming is lowest, followed by flight, with terrestrial limbed locomotion being the most expensive per unit distance. However, because of the speeds involved, flight requires the most energy per unit time. This does not mean that an animal that normally moves by running would be a more efficient swimmer, however; these comparisons assume an animal is specialized for that form of motion. Another consideration here is body mass—heavier animals, though using more total energy, require less energy per unit mass to move. Physiologists generally measure energy use by the amount of oxygen consumed, or the amount of carbon dioxide produced, in an animal's respiration.

Forms of locomotion on land include walking, running, hopping or jumping, and crawling or slithering. Here friction and buoyancy are no longer an issue, but a strong skeletal and muscular framework are required in most terrestrial animals for structural support. Each step also requires much energy to overcome inertia, and animals can store elastic potential energy in their tendons to help overcome this. Balance is also required for movement on land. Human infants learn to crawl first before they are able to stand on two feet, which requires good coordination as well as physical development. Humans are bipedal animals, standing on two feet and keeping one on the ground at all times while walking. When running, only one foot is on the ground at any one time at most, and both leave the ground briefly. At higher speeds momentum helps keep the body upright, so more energy can be used in movement. The number of legs an animal has varies greatly, resulting in differences in locomotion. Many familiar mammals have four legs; insects have six, while arachnids have eight. Centipedes and millipedes have many sets of legs that move in metachronal rhythm. Some have none at all, relying on other modes of locomotion.

While animals like ducks can swim in water by floating, some small animals move across it without breaking through the surface. This surface locomotion takes advantage of the surface tension of water. Animals that move in such a way include the water strider. Water striders have legs that are hydrophobic, preventing them from interfering with the structure of water. Another form of locomotion (in which the surface layer is broken) is used by the Basilisk lizard.
Reading Passage 2
Title:Seaweeds
Question types:
文章内容回顾:说seaweeds是有不同种类的,而且seaweed大多分布在热带地区。Seaweed大多生长在海底,而中高纬度的海藻种类明显要少,但是他们live more than two years。继而涉及到outer and inter continent shelf的问题。海藻颜色随深度变化的分布。最浅的是green seaweed,最深的是red;inter高度的事brown。后来说到不仅受温度的影响,还有competition等各种问题的存在。
难度分析:海洋生物学话题,比较喜欢考的是深海浅海中与众不同的植物和动物类型。先要弄清海藻大致的分布区域,然后重点分析不同海洋环境下海藻的生长差异以及之后出现的重重障碍问题。
相关背景内容:Seaweed is a macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae that lives near the seabed (benthic). The term includes some members of the red, brown and green algae. Seaweeds can also be classified by use (as food, medicine, fertilizer, filtration, industrial, etc.). The study of seaweed is known as Phycology.
Two specific environmental requirements dominate seaweed ecology. These are the presence of seawater (or at least brackish water) and the presence of light sufficient to drive photosynthesis. Another common requirement is a firm attachment point. As a result, seaweeds most commonly inhabit the part of a sea that is close to the shore (the littoral zone) and within that zone more frequently on rocky shores than on sand or shingle. Seaweeds occupy a wide range of ecological niches. The highest elevation is only wetted by the tops of sea spray, the lowest is several meters deep. In some areas, littoral seaweeds can extend several miles out to sea. The limiting factor in such cases is sunlight availability. The deepest living seaweeds are some species of red algae.
A number of species such as Sargassum have adapted to a fully planktonic niche and are free-floating, depending on gas-filled sacs to maintain an acceptable depth.
Others have adapted to live in tidal rock pools. In this habitat seaweeds must withstand rapidly changing temperature and salinity and even occasional drying.
The red algae form a distinct group characterized by these attributes: eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, using floridean polysaccharides as food reserves, with phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments (giving them their red color), and with chloroplasts lacking external endoplasmic reticulum and containing unstacked thylakoids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and have sexual reproduction. They often have alternation of generations and may have three generations rather than two.
Brown algae belong to a very large group, the Heterokontophyta, a eukaryotic group of organisms distinguished most prominently by having chloroplasts surrounded by four membranes, suggesting an origin from a symbiotic relationship between a basal eukaryote and another eukaryotic organism. Most brown algae contain the pigment fucoxanthin, which is responsible for the distinctive greenish-brown color that gives them their name. Brown algae are unique among heterokonts in developing into multicellular forms with differentiated tissues, but they reproduce by means of flagellated spores and gametes that closely resemble cells of other heterokonts. Genetic studies show their closest relatives to be the yellow-green algae.
The green algae (singular: green alga) are the large group of algae within which the embryophytes (higher plants) emerged in the charophytes. However, as the embryophytes are traditionally excluded, they form a paraphyletic group, although the clade including both green algae and embryophytes is monophyletic and may be referred to as the Viridiplantae and as the kingdom Plantae. The green algae include unicellular and colonial flagellates, most with two flagella per cell, as well as various colonial, coccoid and filamentous forms, and macroscopic seaweeds.
Reading Passage 3
Title:两种类型的蜥蜴
Question types:
文章内容回顾:本文讲了two types of lizard。
一种是sit-to-wait,另一种是active lizards。STW种类就是更多的在于observation去寻找。他们掩饰的比较好。而AL就是主动,并且花更多时间去寻找,吃得也更多。此外身体特征也不一样。对于不同的捕食方式就有不同的结果。STW就被active predator吃,而AL就被STW吃。最后一段讲的是他们分泌ATP。STW比较sudden而AL更sustain。此外说AL有更多的red blood cells还有larger heart。
难度分析:同一物种不同类型的比较也是生物学里经常拿来考大家的手法。除了区分这两种蜥蜴的不同之处,更重要的是注意它们在区别之下的联系。
相关背景内容:Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with approximately over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group, traditionally recognized as the suborder Lacertilia, is defined as all extant members of the Lepidosauria (reptiles with overlapping scales) that are neither sphenodonts (i.e., tuatara) nor snakes – they form an evolutionary grade. While the snakes are recognized as falling phylogenetically within the Toxicofera clade from which they evolved, the sphenodonts are the sister group to the squamates, the larger monophyletic group, which includes both the lizards and the snakes.
Sight is very important for most lizards, both for locating prey and for communication, and, as such, many lizards have highly acute color vision. Most lizards rely heavily on body language, using specific postures, gestures, and movements to define territory, resolve disputes, and entice mates. Some species of lizards also use bright colors, such as the iridescent patches on the belly of Sceloporus. These colors would be highly visible to predators, so are often hidden on the underside or between scales and only revealed when necessary.
The particular innovation in this respect is the dewlap, a brightly colored patch of skin on the throat, usually hidden between scales. When a display is needed, a lizard can erect the hyoid bone of its throat, resulting in a large vertical flap of brightly colored skin beneath the head which can be then used for communication. Anoles are particularly famous for this display, with each species having specific colors, including patterns only visible under ultraviolet (UV) light, as many lizards can see UV light.
Lizard tails are often a different and dramatically more vivid color than the rest of the body so as to encourage potential predators to strike for the tail first.
Many lizard species (including geckos, skinks, and others) are capable of shedding part of their tails through a process called autotomy. This is an example of the pars pro toto principle, sacrificing "a part for the whole", and is employed by lizards to allow them to escape when captured by the tail by a predator. The detached tail writhes and wiggles, creating a deceptive sense of continued struggle, distracting the predator's attention from the fleeing prey animal.
The lizard will partially regenerate its tail over a period of weeks. A 2014 research identified 326 genes involving the regenaration of lizard tails. The new section will contain cartilage rather than bone, and the skin may be distinctly discolored compared to the rest of the body.

相关阅读

更多资讯请访问 >>> 网站首页 雅思备考 托福备考
0

推荐课程

校区咨询

青少英语校区

地址:石桥广场(九龙坡区石桥铺渝洲路59号) 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

大学城校区

地址:熙街熙都会B区1号观光电梯上5楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

沙坪坝校区

地址:沙坪坝区沙龙广场LG层 电话:‭400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

青少英语校区

地址:渝北区鲁能新城六街区尚品路778号附31号 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

西政未言校区

地址:渝北区西南政法大学西正街(未言思想会馆内) 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

渝北校区

地址:渝北区新牌坊山顶道国宾城新欧鹏教育3楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

解放碑校区

地址:解放碑时代豪苑(美美百货)C座23楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

南坪校区

地址:万达广场8号观光电梯2楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

上清寺校区

地址:渝中区上清寺环球广场20楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询
集团首页 | 关于我们 |  重庆环球教育校区地图 | 雅思考试 |  托福考试 | 小语种培训 |  留学新闻 | 网站地图
重庆托福培训哪家好|重庆雅思培训哪家好