重庆环球雅思电话
您的位置: 首页 > 托福/雅思真题下载_雅思/托福机经网 > 新托福独立写作机经_托福口语机经汇总_托福听力真题mp3_托福阅读机经下载 >

2014年11月9日托福阅读机经

2015-04-02 10:36:42 | 编辑: 无 | 有473人参与 | 来自: 匿名

以下是环球托福小编为你整理的2014年11月9日托福阅读机经,希望对各位考生有所帮助。

考试日期:2014119
Reading Passage 1
Title:Formation of earths atmosphere and ocean
Question types:
文章内容回顾:主题:地质学/环境科学话题
地球大气形成,最早的时候地球上既没有ocean也没有atmosphere,是地球内部的运动和陨石的碰撞形成。steam通过冷却形成谁。说是火山喷发什么的会夹杂着steam nitrogen oxygen氢气等等,等着气温下降水汽凝结形成pool,但是后来又说一种rock里面的水比所有sea的水加起来还要多 但是似无往外释放的很慢 不足以说明地球上水为啥这么多,ocean中的一些化学物质和地球的mantle并不相符,所以就推论有可能有部分水是from beyond。
难度分析:地质类话题很容易和一些环境科学或地球科学话题结合起来考察,大家不仅要对地球本身的如版块岩石等加以熟悉,还要注意一些常考的大气,水相关的话题。
相关背景内容:The first atmosphere would have consisted of gases in the solar nebula, primarily hydrogen. In addition, there would probably have been simple hydrides such as those now found in gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn, notably water vapor, methane and ammonia. As the solar nebula dissipated, these gases would have escaped, partly driven off by the solar wind.

The next atmosphere, consisting largely of nitrogen plus carbon dioxide and inert gases, was produced by outgassing from volcanism, supplemented by gases produced during the late heavy bombardment of Earth by huge asteroids. A major part of carbon dioxide emissions were soon dissolved in water and built up carbonate sediments.

The constant re-arrangement of continents by plate tectonics influences the long-term evolution of the atmosphere by transferring carbon dioxide to and from large continental carbonate stores. Free oxygen did not exist in the atmosphere until about 2.4 billion years ago during the Great Oxygenation Event and its appearance is indicated by the end of the banded iron formations. Before this time, any oxygen produced by photosynthesis was consumed by oxidation of reduced materials, notably iron. Molecules of free oxygen did not start to accumulate in the atmosphere until the rate of production of oxygen began to exceed the availability of reducing materials. This point signifies a shift from a reducing atmosphere to an oxidizing atmosphere. O2 showed major variations until reaching a steady state of more than 15% by the end of the Precambrian. The following time span from 541 million years ago to the present day is the Phanerozoic eon, during the earliest period of which, the Cambrian, oxygen-requiring metazoan life forms began to appear.
Reading Passage 2
Title:High Middle Ages
Question types:
文章内容回顾:主题:历史文明类话题
the high middle age经历了一段时期的低迷以后,欧洲的经济重新复苏,原因有1000年的世界末日并没有到来,人们更optimistic了啦,人口增多耕地增多啦之类的。然后增加了对goods的需求,所以那些交通便利的城市就重新获得活力。这个时期就说Italy是最主要的一个推动经济发展的城市,它和各个城市都有交通联系,就像一个贸易中心。比如flanders就用从italy运来的textile制成cloth,这成为一个重要的运输商品。还有一个就说merchants聚集的guilds对当时的封建制度是一个巨大挑战。
难度分析:历史文明类话题,考生要多熟悉世界古代文明和早起美国文明。首先要把握时间发展的时间线索,以及各个事件之间的逻辑关系。注意整篇文章中事件的冲突与发展变化。
相关背景内容:The High Middle Ages (or High Medieval Period) was the period of European history around the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries (c. 1001–1300). The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention end around 1500.
The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages was the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era. By 1250 the robust population increase greatly benefited the European economy, reaching levels it would not see again in some areas until the 19th century. This trend was checked in the Late Middle Ages by a series of calamities, notably the Black Death but also including numerous wars and economic stagnation.
From about the year 780 onwards, Europe saw the last of the barbarian invasions and became more socially and politically organized. The Carolingian Renaissance led to scientific and philosophical revival of Europe. The first universities were established in Bologna, Salerno, Paris and Modena. The Vikings had settled in the British Isles, France and elsewhere, whilst Norse Christian kingdoms were developing in their Scandinavian homelands. The Magyars had ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, a Christian Kingdom of Hungary was recognized in central Europe, forming alliances with regional powers. With the brief exception of the Mongol invasions in the 13th century, major nomadic incursions ceased. The powerful Byzantine Empire of the Macedonian and Komnenos dynasties gradually gave way to resurrected Serbia and Bulgaria and to a successor Crusade state from 1204 to 1261, while countering the continuous threat of the Seljuk Turks in Asia Minor.
In the 11th century, populations north of the Alps began to settle new lands, some of which had reverted to wilderness after the end of the Roman Empire. In what is known as the "great clearances", vast forests and marshes of Europe were cleared and cultivated. At the same time settlements moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new frontiers in Europe, beyond the Elbe River, tripling the size of Germany in the process. The Catholic Church, reaching the peak of its political power at this time, called armies from across Europe to a series of Crusades against the Seljuk Turks, who occupied the Holy Land, thereby founding the Crusader States in the Levant. Other wars led to the Northern Crusades, while Christian kingdoms conquered the Iberian Peninsula from the Moors, and the Normans colonized southern Italy, all part of the major population increase and resettlement pattern of the era.
The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual and artistic works. This age saw the rise of ethnocentrism, which evolved later into modern civic nationalisms in most of Europe, the ascent of the great Italian city-states, and the rise and fall of the Muslim civilization of Al-Andalus. The rediscovery of the works of Aristotle led Thomas Aquinas and other thinkers of the period to develop Scholasticism, a combination of Catholicism and ancient philosophy. For much of the time period Constantinople remained Europe's most populous city and Byzantine art reached a peak in the 12th century. In architecture, many of the most notable Gothic cathedrals were built or completed during this era.
Reading Passage 3
Title:Brains of birds
Question types:
文章内容回顾:主题:生物类话题
第一段,对于鸟类来说,他们的头的比例对身体来说偏大(比恐龙头对身体比例大)于是鸟就为了保持飞行不受阻力develop了一种能力,某些脑细胞需要的时候再长出来,不需要的时候就变小以保证头的大小的重量是最优,距离northern的一种sing birds他们的一种控制唱歌的脑细胞,在春天比在冬天大,冬天的时候,脑袋里面又其他组织会更大,占据剩余空间。
第二段,说鸟的大脑和人的大脑一样,有个L的功能,就说左脑右脑控制不同的行为和反应,举小鸡为例子:左脑区分食物和非食物,右脑注意没见过的新事物和敌人
第三段:说小鸡左脑控制右眼,右脑控制左眼,这里举了很多小例子,有两个题目。
第四段说很多的sing bird都是右脑处理歌词小细节,左脑统筹整首歌,来区别个人是同类还是异类,但是有种Z鸟,两个脑子的功能是相辅相成,还有别的功能。
难度分析:鸟类是生物学中比较特殊却又是很经典的一类题材,鸟经常被人类拿来做试验研究。大家要注意文中的例子,包括实验,类比,对比等。
相关背景内容:The skeleton consists of very lightweight bones. They have large air-filled cavities (called pneumatic cavities) which connect with the respiratory system. The skull bones in adults are fused and do not show cranial sutures. The orbits are large and separated by a bony septum. The spine has cervical, thoracic, lumbar and caudal regions with the number of cervical (neck) vertebrae highly variable and especially flexible, but movement is reduced in the anterior thoracic vertebrae and absent in the later vertebrae. The last few are fused with the pelvis to form the synsacrum. The ribs are flattened and the sternum is keeled for the attachment of flight muscles except in the flightless bird orders. The forelimbs are modified into wings.
The nervous system is large relative to the bird's size. The most developed part of the brain is the one that controls the flight-related functions, while the cerebellum coordinates movement and the cerebrum controls behaviour patterns, navigation, mating and nest building. Most birds have a poor sense of smell with notable exceptions including kiwis, New World vultures and tubenoses. The avian visual system is usually highly developed. Water birds have special flexible lenses, allowing accommodation for vision in air and water. Some species also have dual fovea. Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones. This allows them to perceive ultraviolet light, which is involved in courtship. Birds have specialized light-sensing cells deep in their brains that respond to light without input from eyes or other sensory neurons. These photo-receptive cells in the hypothalamus are involved in detecting the longer days of spring, and thus regulate breeding activities.
At the beginning of the 20th century, scientists argued that the birds had hyper-developed basal ganglia, with tiny mammalian-like telencephalon structures. Modern studies have refuted this view. The basal ganglia only occupy a small part of the avian brain. Instead, it seems that birds use a different part of their brain, the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (see also nidopallium), as the seat of their intelligence, and the brain-to-body size ratio of psittacines (parrots) and corvines (birds of the crow family) is actually comparable to that of higher primates.
Studies with captive birds have given insight into which birds are the most intelligent. While parrots have the distinction of being able to mimic human speech, studies with the African grey parrot have shown that some are able to associate words with their meanings and form simple sentences (see Alex). Parrots and the corvid family of crows, ravens, and jays are considered the most intelligent of birds. Not surprisingly, research has shown that these species tend to have the largest HVCs. Dr. Harvey J. Karten, a neuroscientist at UCSD who has studied the physiology of birds, has discovered that the lower parts of avian brains are similar to those of humans.

相关阅读

更多资讯请访问 >>> 网站首页 雅思备考 托福备考
0

校区咨询

大学城校区

地址:熙街熙都会B区1号观光电梯上5楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

沙坪坝校区

地址:沙坪坝区沙龙广场LG层 电话:‭400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

青少英语校区

地址:渝北区鲁能新城六街区尚品路778号附31号 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

西政未言校区

地址:渝北区西南政法大学西正街(未言思想会馆内) 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

渝北校区

地址:渝北区新牌坊山顶道国宾城新欧鹏教育3楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

解放碑校区

地址:解放碑时代豪苑(美美百货)C座23楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

南坪校区

地址:万达广场8号观光电梯2楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询

上清寺校区

地址:渝中区上清寺环球广场20楼 电话:400-691-1717 乘车路线:地图查询  在线咨询
集团首页 | 关于我们 | 学校地图 | 雅思考试 | 托福考试 | 小语种考试 | 网站地图